Glucose and Insulin Metabolism

ruisleipakoriRye products generate a lower postprandial insulin response than wheat products, even though the postprandial glucose response remains unchanged. This response is not only due to the fiber content of rye, but also due to the bioactive components and the physical structure of rye products, e.g. rye breads. Also, there is evidence that grain variety influences the postprandial insulin metabolism, some varieties showing more insulin saving capacity than others.

Hypothetically, repeated lower postprandial insulinemic responses may allow beta cell function to recover or decrease insulin resistance, which improves early insulin secretion over the long term. In line with this hypothesis, it has been established that high-fiber rye bread increased the acute insulin response, but insulin sensitivity remained unchanged in the long run. Furthermore, it has been shown that rye bread and pasta-based carbohydrate modification can enhance early insulin secretion in persons with the metabolic syndrome, although no changes in glucose tolerance or insulin resistance were observed. It has been recently shown that rye bread and pasta based diet down-regulated genes responsible for insulin signaling suggesting that such carbohydrate modifications may influence the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Several clinical studies support the hypothesis that whole grain consumption and especially high intake of cereal fiber is significantly associated with reduced risk of diabetes.

 

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Rosén LA, Östman EM, Björck IM. (2011). Postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and satiety responses in healthy subjects after whole grain rye bread made from different rye varieties. J Agric Food Chem 59:12149-54.

Rosén LA, Östman EM, Björck IM.(2011). Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products. Nutr J 10:7.

Andersson U, Rosén L, Ostman E, Ström K, Wierup N, Björck I, Holm C. (2010). Metabolic effects of whole grain wheat and whole grain rye in the C57BL/6J mouse. Nutrition. 2010;26:230-9.

Poutanen K, Mykkänen H. (2010). Ruisleivän vaikutukset glukoosi- ja insuliiniaineenvaihduntaan. Suom Laakaril 44:3601-03.

Hlebowicz J, Jönsson JM, Lindstedt S, Björgell O, Darwich G, Almér LO. (2009). Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects. Nutr J 16:26.

Rosén LA, Silva LO, Andersson UK, Holm C, Ostman EM, Björck IM. (2009). Endosperm and whole grain rye breads are characterized by low post-prandial insulin response and a beneficial blood glucose profile. Nutr J 25:42.

Kallio, P., Kolehmainen, M., Laaksonen, D., Pulkkinen, L., Atalay, M., Mykkänen, H., Uusitupa, M., Poutanen, K. and Niskanen, L. (2008) Inflammation markers are modulated by responses to diets differing in postprandial insulin responses in individuals with the metabolic syndrome. J. Am. Clin Nutr. 87:1497-1503.

Mesci B, Oguz A, Sagun HG, Uzunlulu M, Keskin EB, Coksert D. (2008). Dietary breads: myth or reality? Diabetes Res Clin Pract 81:68-71.

de Munter JS, Hu FB, Spiegelman D, Franz M, van Dam RM. (2007).Whole grain, bran, and germ intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study and systematic review. PLoS Med. 4:e261.

Kallio, P., Kolehmainen, M., Laaksonen, D., Kekälainen, J., Salopuro, T., Sivenius, K., Pulkkinen, L., Mykkänen, H., Niskanen, L., Uusitupa, M., Poutanen, K. (2007). Dietary carbohydrate modification induces alterations in gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in persons with the metabolic syndrome: the FUNGENUT Study. Am J Clin Nutr 85:1417-27.

Schulze MB, Schulz M, Heidemann C, Schienkiewitz A, Hoffmann K, Boeing H. (2007). Fiber and Magnesium Intake and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study and Meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 167:956–65.

Laaksonen DE, Toppinen LK, Juntunen KS (2005). Dietary carbohydrate modification enhances insulin secretion in persons with the metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 82:1218 –27.

Lundin EA, Zhang JX, Lairon D, Tidehag P, Aman P, Adlercreutz H, Hallmans G. (2004). Effects of meal frequency and high-fibre rye-bread diet on glucose and lipid metabolism and ileal excretion of energy and sterols in ileostomy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 58:1410-9.

Juntunen KS, Laaksonen DE, Autio K, Niskanen L, et al. (2003a). Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread Am J Clin. Nutr. 78:957– 64.

Juntunen KS, Laaksonen DE, Poutanen KS, Niskanen LK, Mykkanen HM. (2003b). High-fiber rye bread and insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 77:385–91.

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Leinonen K, Liukkonen K, Poutanen K, Uusitupa M, Mykkanen H. (1999). Rye bread decreases postprandial insulin response but does not alter glucose response in healthy Finnish subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 53:262–7.