Statistics and Usage
Rye (Secale cereale) is a special cereal grown almost exclusively in the north-western part of the Eastern Hemisphere. Nearly 95% of the global production takes place in the northern part of the area between the Ural Mountains and the Nordic Sea. The greatest rye producer used to be the former Soviet Union. Now this has been split in two main parts: the Russian Federation over 3 million tonnes and Belarus about 1 million tonnes. These two with Poland, which produces about 3 million tonnes, and Germany, nearly 4 million tonnes in year 2014, were the largest producers.
Nordic and Baltic countries produced 1 217 200 tons of rye in 2014 and European Union (EU) 8 904 588 tons (2014). The Nordic and Baltic countries production is 14 % of the rye production in EU. Of the Nordic and Baltic countries Denmark, Sweden, Lithuania, Latvia and Finland have the highest rye production, more than 74 000 tons/year and Estonia and Norway the lowest 49 600 tonnes and 39 000 tonnes, respectively (2014).
Although the total production of rye has diminished, its use as food for humans has increased slightly during the 1990s. In 2009, the food consumption of rye in the world was almost 6 million metric tonnes, which is about 31% of total production (18.3 million tonnes in 2009).
Cereal consumption in EU 2011/2012.
% of total
|Wheat||118 466||47 946||40.5|
|Rye||6 802||3 018||44.4|
|Oat||7 687||1 133||14.7|
In 2011/2012, EU used 7 million tonnes rye and 44.4 % was used as food. The rest was used as feed. Very little barley is used as food only 0.7 % of total barley usage.
Annual cereal consumption as food (kg/head) in EU 2007 - 2009.
|Human consumption kg/head|
In EU human consumption of rye is 5.6 kg/head which is 5.1 times higher than barley, 3.1 times higher than oat, but 18.3 times lower that wheat. Generally, during the last few decades, rye consumption has decreased in countries, where its consumption has traditionally been high, and has increased in countries, where the consumption has been low.
Annual Rye Consumption as Food in the World and in some individual countries
|Rye consumption in kilogram/capita|
Of the Nordic and Baltic countries Norway have the lowest consumption of rye 6.6 kg/capita and Latvia the highest 19.1 kg/capita. All Nordic and Baltic countries have higher rye consumption than EU average, 5.6 kg/capita.